Convicts - referred to by some as Australian Royalty - are an important part of Australian family history.
I have decided to create a page devoted to my convict ancestors and their stories as provided below.
I feel very fortunate to have a few convict ancestors.
There may be more but so far, to the best of my knowledge, they are on my mother's side of the family and are as follows:
Samuel Taylor (whose grave is pictured above)
Margaret Taylor (nee Jones)
Margaret Parkes (nee Southern)
Ellen Gost (nee Stores)
Here are some stories I have written about my convict ancestors...
|A Settler's Home, New South Wales, ca. 1841 / watercolour by Frederick Garling. The image is from the collections of the State Library of NSW.|
"The first full census of new South Wales was not made until 1828. Subsequent censuses were taken sporadically in the various colonies until 3 April 1881, when a census was taken for the first time on the same date throughout Australia."
I decided to look at the 1841 Census for my 3 x great-grandfather, Samuel Taylor.
The 1841 Census was taken on 2 March and is indexed and held on microfilm by the State Records of NSW (referred to as AONSW in Vine Hall's book) and the National Library of Australia (NLA). You can search the index on State Records site here or you can look at the digitized version on Ancestry.
I am lucky that Samuel lived on the Murrumbidgee as not all places have names of individuals listed e.g. Lachlan and Liverpool districts.
I can view an entry on an index to Abstracts: Berrima to Sydney here which gives the following information:
Return No. 46
Residence: Tharmus, District Murrumbidgee
No. of persons: 6
Location: X947, p. 89
Another Index entry here shows slightly different information.
Return No. 22
No. of persons: 7
Location: X951, p. 131
The conflicting index information really makes me want to look at the microfilms at the Records Office of NSW!
I can view Form C or the Abstract of Samuel Taylor's record here. It is on Page 5 of the Murrumbidgee Abstract - entry number 45.
The name of the establishment (as per the column header) is shown as Tharmus. I believe this is an interpretation of the name of the property called Taemas. Samuel must have had a thick Kentish accent!
At the time there were two males living there aged between 21 and 45 and four females (one aged between 2 and 7, one aged between 7 and 14, one aged between 14 and 21 and one aged between 21 and 45 years of age).
One male and three of the females were born in the colony. One of the males was described as a stockman and one female as a domestic servant. I am going to estimate that the makeup of the household was as follows:
Samuel Taylor would have been aged about 44.
Samuel's son, Samuel, was born in 1833 so would have been aged about 8 so I think the other male was a stockman.
Margaret Taylor (nee Jones) - Samuel's wife would have been aged about 32.
Margaret their daughter who was born in 1837, would have been about 4 years old.
I am guessing that the other two females were a domestic servant and perhaps another child of Margaret's that I didn't know ....or a child of the domestic servant.
Their religion was Church of England.
The house was made of wood, finished and inhabited.
Whilst the picture at the beginning of this post is charming, I suspect my ancestor's home may have looked more like this.
|Sketches in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and Norfolk Island, ca. 1841-1847] / by John Skinner Prout|
Out of copyright - Creator died before 1955 Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales
There would have been no sewerage or running water in the home. Water would have been carried in to the house in buckets I imagine. There would have been no electricity. Winter would have been "bitter cold" as my grandmother used to say. And central heating could not have been imagined. I can understand why Samuel would have taken a wee dram to keep himself warm.
Page 8 of the Abstract gives the totals for the area called the Murrumbidgee. They are as follows:
Males - 1258 (782 free and 476 bond)
Females - 281 (272 free and 9 bond )
Hmmm....there's something to think about there for a start.
Of the 167 dwellings, all were wood and only 7 were unfinished.
The majority of people were employed looking after sheep or in agriculture. The next highest occupational group was domestic servants.
867 people identified as Church of England and 482 as Roman Catholic. The next highest group was Church of Scotland. Three people were identified as Mahomedans or Pagan and 4 as Jews.
At the bottom of the abstract is a signature which I read as Henry Bingham. He would have checked the returns and sent the abstract to the Colonial Secretary. For a more detailed description of how the census was enacted and collected read here.
|Commissioner Henry Bingham [with white horse, 1840s] / [oil painting attributed to Thomas Balcombe] [Unframed]Out of copyright - Artist died before 1955 - Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales.|
|1840 'MURRUMBIDGEE.', The Sydney Herald (NSW : 1831 - 1842), 28 November, p. 2. , viewed 07 Aug 2016, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12866754|
|1844 'ABORIGINES.', The Colonial Observer (Sydney, NSW : 1841 -1844), 28 November, p. 6. , viewed 07 Aug 2016, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article226466821|
"From April to November there is most to do in a dairy-farm; May and June the busiest time. As far as the woman superintending the diary is concerned, the first thing done in the morning is to skim the milk, empty the skimmed milk into the cheese-tub, and prepare the milk vessels for the new milk, which is brought into the dairy by five or six o'clock; after which, with the assistance of her servant, she prepares a portion of the skimmed milk for the calves, and makes the remainder into cheese. Two days a-week she has butter to make, two days she goes to market, and the other two she is occupied in the cheese-room. These different matters occupy the middle of the day. In the evening the milk is to be skimmed, and the new milk put into its proper vessels, and the calves to be again attended to.....The dairy-maid's age is from 20 to 30. She is employed from 12 to 14 hours a-day; her work is even more laborious than the superintendent's, but without any bad effect on the health. The wages of the dairy-maid is from 8l. to 10l. a year, with board and maintenance. "
"Those persons who have excelled in dairy work, have generally learnt their business when quite young, as a knowledge of it is not to be hastily acquired. Good dairy maids are always fond of their occupation, for it is not, except in large dairies, a very laborious one, and is not attended with the disagreeables and the vexations which so frequently occur in the occupation of a cook maid. The great art of butter and cheese making, consists in extreme care and scrupulous cleanliness...."
"For many dairywomen, cheesemaking frequently imposed conflict with family obligations. This is reflected in the recollections of someone who grew up in a Somerset cheesemaking household: When we were all young, Mother couldn' leave the cheese tubs tuh see us. When the cheese were fast she had tuh be there...We used tuh go in an' say, "Mam, We'm hungry. We Wan' summit tuh eat." An' if the curd was forward enough she'd hit a piece off an' say, "ere, push this in thee mouth and geedon out. I ab'n got time to play withee now." (quoted in Chris Howell, Memories of Cheddar (Chilcompton, Chris Howell, 1984). 89.